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Where Do Canadians Study? [Infographic]

Where Do Canadians Study?

September is quickly approaching, and that means students around the world are preparing to go back to school. But where, exactly, are they going? This infographic explains where undergraduate and graduate students attend university in Canada and how many adventure-seekers travel abroad to receive their education.

Are you attending college or university this fall? How to Write an Essay, an online course by Inklyo, will help you prepare for another year of learning.

Where Do Canadians Study?

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How to Identify Independent and Dependent Clauses


Independent and Dependent Clauses

What Is a Clause?

A clause is a group of words containing both a subject (who or what the sentence is about) and a verb (which describes the main action of the subject). There are two kinds of clauses: independent and dependent clauses. Most simply, an independent clause can form a complete sentence on its own and a dependent clause cannot (at least, not by itself).

Think of it this way: an independent clause is like a cup of coffee, and a dependent clause is like a caffeine lover. Caffeine lovers are dependent on coffee, so the two can be joined (quite happily) to form a cohesive unit. Similarly, two cups of coffee, or two independent clauses, can be combined. However, you cannot put two caffeine-dependent people together to form a working unit without any coffee. It just doesn’t work. They need caffeine.

The same is true with sentences. You can join an independent clause and a dependent clause. You can even join two independent clauses (as long as you use proper punctuation and/or a coordinating conjunction). But you can’t stick two dependent clauses together and expect to form a sentence.

Simple enough, right? Let’s go into more detail and look at some examples of independent and dependent clauses.

Independent Clauses

Independent and Dependent Clauses Infographic
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An independent clause contains a subject (again, who or what the sentence is about) and a predicate (which tells us something about the subject, such as what the subject is doing). As mentioned, these clauses can function as their own complete sentences, but they can also be combined with other clauses (either independent or dependent) to create longer sentences. Consider this example:

The coffee was brewing because it was early morning.

We can break this sentence down into two parts. The first part is the coffee was brewing. This is an independent clause because it contains both a subject and a verb: the subject is the coffee and the verb phrase is was brewing. This clause can stand on its own as a complete sentence.

The coffee was brewing.

However, we still have additional information:

. . . because it was early morning.

This is not an independent clause because it lacks a subject. Instead, we have a dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause). Dependent clauses can’t stand alone; that is, they require the support of independent clauses to constitute a complete sentence, just as the coffee lover needs coffee to function.

Joining Independent Clauses

An independent and a dependent clause can be joined to form a single sentence, as you’ve seen in the above example. But can two independent clauses be joined in one sentence? Let’s go back to that delicious cup of coffee. Here is a sentence with one independent clause and one dependent clause.

The coffee was brewing because it was early morning.

Let’s delete because and form two sentences:

The coffee was brewing. It was early morning.

We now have two independent but related clauses, each forming its own sentence. Because the content of these clauses is related, we might want to connect them somehow. How can we do this in a single sentence? Using a semicolon, of course!

The coffee was brewing; it was early morning.

What initially began as a sentence made up of an independent and a dependent clause has become a sentence with two independent clauses. If semicolons aren’t really your style, you can also use a comma and a conjunction to join two independent clauses. Like two cups of coffee poured into one humongous cup, two independent clauses can be joined with little work.

Dependent Clauses

Sentence Structure EbookAs you’ve already learned, dependent clauses cannot stand alone in a sentence, just as tired people cannot function without coffee. A dependent (or subordinate) clause begins with a subordinating conjunction, such as if, after, before, because, although, or when, and it requires the support of an independent clause to constitute a complete sentence.

There are a few different types of dependent clauses: adjective clauses, adverbial clauses, and noun clauses.

Adjective Clauses

An adjective clause is a dependent clause that describes a noun in another part of a sentence. Usually, an adjective clause is very close to the noun it describes. Adjective clauses begin with the relative pronouns who, whom, whose, that, or which. They can also begin with the relative adverbs whenwhere, or why.

There’s the café that you’ve been looking for all day.

The subject is the café. Pay close attention to the word that and what follows it. The phrase that you’ve been looking for all day gives us information about or describes the noun café. That means it’s an adjective clause, and because an adjective clause is a type of dependent clause, it cannot stand on its own.

Adverbial Clauses

Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses that tell us why, when, how, or under which conditions something occurs. Look at the following example.

Although you already had six cups of coffee, you decided to buy more coffee anyway.

We know the adverbial clause can’t be you decided to buy more coffee anyway because it can stand alone as a complete sentence. However, the adverbial clause, although you already had six cups of coffee, tells us under what circumstances you decided to buy more coffee. The adverbial clause, which is a dependent clause, needs the independent clause to form a complete sentence.

Noun Clauses

Noun clauses can act as either the subject or the object of a clause, and they usually begin with words like what, whywho, and that.

I don’t care what the doctors say about caffeine intake.

In the first part of the sentence, the subject is I, and don’t care is the verb phrase. The noun clause is what the doctors say about caffeine intake. This clause describes what it is that the subject doesn’t care about and is therefore dependent (like some caffeine-obsessed people I know).


Here’s a brief summary: independent clauses are made up of a subject and predicate, and can stand alone as a sentence. Like cups of coffee, they’re perfect on their own. Dependent clauses are made up of a subject and predicate but cannot stand alone due to the presence of a subordinating word, such as althoughif, or because. Dependent clauses are like coffee lovers; they cannot stand on their own. They need coffee!

Dependent clauses can be any of the following: adjective clauses, which describe nouns; adverbial clauses, which tell us whywhen, how, or under which conditions something occurs in a sentence; or noun clauses, which act as the subject or the object of a clause and usually begin with words like whatwhywho, and that. Dependent clauses need independent clauses like coffee lovers need coffee. Together, they can’t be stopped!

Image source: Mike Kenneally/, Padurariu Alexandru/

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The Order of Adjectives

Order of Adjectives Poster
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You might be thinking, “Order of adjectives? Can’t I just lump them all together in front of the noun and call it a day?” It might surprise you to discover that when adjectives are presented in a series, there’s actually a particular order they must follow. Often, native English speakers follow this order out of habit, knowing that “the big red car” sounds better than “the red big car.”

However, for those just learning the language, understanding the correct order of adjectives can be tricky. Here is the order a list of adjectives should follow:

  1. Determiner
  2. Opinion
  3. Size
  4. Age
  5. Shape
  6. Color
  7. Material
  8. Origin
  9. Purpose

We’ll explain what each of these means and provide some examples so you can figure out exactly where you should be placing different types of adjectives in relation to your noun. (The noun here is puppies. Because everybody loves puppies.)


Determiners include articles (a, an, or the) and other limiters (e.g., your, eight, or his).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The determiner in the example is ten (because you can never have too many puppies).


An adjective of opinion describes an observation or what someone thinks about something (e.g., beautiful, tasty, or horrific).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The opinion in the example is lovable (even though some would argue that’s not so much an opinion as a fact).


Size describes how big or small something is (e.g., bigsmall, minuscule, or enormous).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The size in the example is small.


As you would expect, age describes how young or old something is (e.g., youngoldancient, or new).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The age in the example is young. (We’re talking puppies, not dogs. Not everyone is a dog person, but everyone is a puppy person.)


The next descriptor is the shape of the item being described (e.g., roundsquare, or flat).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The shape in the example is pudgy. Awww!

Parts of Speech


Over halfway there, folks! Next in the list is color (e.g., redpinkish, or yellow).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The color is usually pretty easy to spot. In the example, it’s beige.


The material describes what something is made out of (e.g., woodencotton, silver, or metal).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

Although we all know puppies are made out of love and happiness, technically speaking it’s probably more accurate to describe them as fuzzy.


Origin describes where something is from (e.g., Frenchwestern, or solar).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The origin in the example is French. (These are French bulldog puppies, a breed that originates, as you would expect, in France.)


Purpose describes what something is used for or what it does (e.g., racing [as in racing car] or sleeping [as in sleeping bag]).

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

The purpose of these puppies is to be companions, so the adjective in the example is pet.


Now that you’ve listed all the adjectives, it’s time to identify the word you have been describing (i.e., the noun). Finally! We have reached the puppies.

Ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.

In the example, the noun is puppies, in case you didn’t get the memo . . .


While there are no rules limiting the number of adjectives that can be used, two or three are generally sufficient. (Otherwise, you begin to sound like Al Harrington of Family Guy marketing his Wacky Waving Inflatable Arm-Flailing Tubemen!) Most readers would prefer to read “pudgy, fuzzy puppies” than “ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies.” Though I’d take either, if we’re being perfectly honest.

Now that you’ve got the order of adjectives down, find out how to use the other parts of speech with this handy ebook!

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The Language Sandwich: An Overview of the Nine Parts of Speech

The Language Sandwich

A sandwich.

Sandwiches are the best kind of food.

Not only do sandwiches contain different kinds of foods, but they are held together by even more food. You can eat them with your hands or with a knife and fork; you can eat them for breakfast, second breakfast, brunch, lunch, or dinner; you can make them sweet or savory, hot or cold; and you can make them with various parts of the English language (the nine parts of speech, to be exact).

Wait, what now?

Did I lose you at the end there? (Or maybe in the middle, where you got up to make yourself a delicious sandwich?) Yes, we can make a sandwich using grammar! And it will be an amazing sandwich, I assure you. After all, the English language has different components, or ingredients if you will, just as sandwiches do. It’s made up of the nine parts of speech, and they’re put together in such a way that everything just works. (Just like that confusingly delicious peanut butter and lettuce sandwich of grade school days. Don’t look at me like that. Just try it.)

We can think of the different parts of speech like different parts of the English language. This will be helpful for understanding how sentences are put together, and it’s also a great way to remember how everything fits together. I hope you’re hungry because it’s time to chow down!

The Nine Parts of Speech

The Language Sandwich Infographic
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If our recipe is “The English Language,” then our ingredients list consists of the nine parts of speech.

  1. Nouns (the bread)
  2. Verbs (the meat)
  3. Pronouns (the type of bread)
  4. Adverbs (the type of meat)
  5. Adjectives (the butter)
  6. Conjunctions (the cheese)
  7. Articles (the mayo)
  8. Prepositions (the lettuce)
  9. Interjections (the mustard)

Click to enlarge the adjacent infographic for a quick go-to guide detailing the parts of speech (and their edible equivalents). But stick with me, and I will define the parts of speech in more detail. By the end of this article, everything will make sense. Let’s start assembling that sandwich!

Nouns (The Bread)

We use nouns to name things, such as a person (e.g., Dagwood), an animal (e.g., a bear), an object (e.g., a grill), a place (e.g., Montreal), actions (e.g., creation), abstract ideas (e.g., love), or qualities (e.g., greed). The capitalized nouns here are all proper nouns, which means they refer to specific people or places, and the lowercase ones are common nouns.

Nouns are the bread of the sandwich. Without the bread, we’d just have a sloppy mess. The sentence kneads nouns. (See what I did there?) And just as there are many different kinds of bread, there are many different kinds of nouns. Nouns are the best thing since sliced bread. (Yeah, we went there.)

Verbs (The Meat)

A verb is used to describe an action (make, as in you make too many sandwiches), an event (toast, as in the bread is toasted), or a state (eat, as in I need to eat). Verbs have different types, tenses, and moods, and they must agree with their subjects to form a correct sentence.

Verbs are the meat of a sentence. A sentence does not exist without a verb, just as a sandwich does not exist without meat. (I can hear the vegetarians and peanut-butter-and-jelly lovers crying out at this point, but go with us here.) Just as you need both a noun and a verb to form a sentence, most people agree you need at least bread and meat to make a sandwich.

Pronouns (The Type of Bread)

Pronouns are used in place of nouns. The purpose of pronouns is to avoid repetition and make sentences easier to understand. A noun that is replaced by a pronoun is referred to as the antecedent. Some of the most common pronouns to remember are he, she, it, they, and this.

Choosing a pronoun is like choosing which type of bread to use for your sandwich. Will it be white bread (he), whole-wheat bread (she), rye (it), sourdough (they), or pita bread (this)? Though there are many types of bread out there—white, whole wheat, rye, baguettes, naan—at the end of the day, it’s all still bread, and we can call it such. The same goes for pronouns, which we use in the place of nouns.

Further, there is a proper type of bread for every sandwich. You can’t just use banana bread to make a pulled-pork sandwich! In the same way, you can’t use he to describe the Queen of England. (Well, you could, but you’d be wrong, and I don’t think Her Majesty would appreciate it.)

Adverbs (The Type of Meat)

An adverb is a part of speech that describes how someone or something performs an action. It is different from an adjective, which describes someone or something. Adverbs give more information about how an action is carried out.

For example, you can put meat in your sandwich (as you should). But what kind of meat? Will it be honey ham, prosciutto, or bologna? Choosing the type of meat greatly influences how the sandwich will taste. It’s the same with adverbs! “She ate the sandwich vigorously” is a different flavor of sentence than “She ate the sandwich slowly.”

Adjectives (The Butter)

Adjectives are simply words used to describe or modify nouns (people, places, things) and pronouns (e.g., I, she, he, it, they, etc.) by depicting, quantifying, or identifying them. When a series of adjectives is used to describe one noun, the adjectives must follow a particular order (like in the case of ten lovable, small, young, pudgy, beige, fuzzy, French pet puppies I know).

Just as butter is closely related to bread, adjectives are closely related to nouns. And just as butter gives flavor to the bread, adjectives give flavor to nouns. (I was going to try to come up with a clever butter pun, but the margarine for error was too high. Ba dum tss!)

Parts of Speech

Conjunctions (The Cheese)

A conjunction is a part of speech that functions as a connector between two sentences, clauses, phrases, or words. In writing, conjunctions can be effectively used in lieu of starting a new sentence. The proper use of conjunctions allows for a more natural flow and rhythm in writing. Popular conjunctions include for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

Because conjunctions draw relationships between parts of the sentence, they’re kind of like cheese. Gooey, delicious, melting cheese. Mmmmm. . . Sorry, what was I talking about again? Oh, right! Cheese is like a conjunction because conjunctions connect the parts of a sentence.

Articles (The Mayo)

Articles help determine whether you are referring to something of a specific type (with definite articles) or something of a general type (with indefinite articles). There are only three articles (the, an, or a) in the English language, so they are very easy to find in a sentence once you know them!

Just like sandwiches are somewhat incomplete without mayo, sentences are incomplete without articles. Also, it’s pretty easy to tell when a sandwich doesn’t have mayo because it’ll be very, very dry. And nobody likes a dry sandwich! It’s just sad.

Prepositions (The Lettuce)

Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to the other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that is introduced is called the object of the preposition. Simple prepositions include about, above, after, around, before, below, beneath, during, following, inside, into, near, onto, outside, over, through, to, toward, under, and upon. 

Let us consider how lettuce is like prepositions. Lettuce acts as a bridge between the bread and the meat. Plus, no sandwich is complete without that wonderful crunch. In the same way, prepositions are that missing link. They govern nouns (or pronouns) to express a relationship between nouns (or pronouns) and other words in a sentence.

Interjections (The Mustard)

An interjection is not necessarily grammatically connected to the sentence (e.g., “Hmmm . . . that’s right”), but it is designed to convey the emotion of the speaker or narrator. Interjections are often followed by an exclamation mark; for example, “yum!” and “wow!” are both interjections.

Like interjections, mustard can be surprising (oh!) in taste and smell, adding a little something extra to the sandwich. And like mustard, interjections change the flavor of the whole sentence. You’re done building your sandwich, so slap some mustard on it and tie a napkin around your neck.


I hope you’re ready to eat. We’ve been through the nine parts of speech and now have a magnificent English-language sandwich to consume. It might even bring a tear to your eye.

There’s nothing more satisfying than the first bite of a beautifully layered sandwich you’ve worked so hard to put together. So now that you’re finished, it’s time to enjoy. Why not kick back, eat your sandwich, and crack open a book?

Image source: kur0shiro/, lee_2/

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15 Ways to Fail at Social Media Marketing (Infographic)

Ways to Fail at Social Media Marketing

When it comes to social media marketing, knowing what not to do can be as important as knowing what to do. The consequences of a mistake can be (at best) losing followers or (at worst) losing your clients’ and potential clients’ trust. Those are pretty high stakes. This infographic lists 15 things to avoid at all costs when executing your business’s social media strategy. If you’d like more information about these tips, check out the full article.

15 Ways to Fail at Social Media Marketing (Infographic)